Closing material loops requires also innovative projects, policies and technologies to optimize the current ‘traditional’ strategies of product life extension, reuse of products and recycling of materials. Many pending questions could be touched upon in this context.
- Product life extension: How to fight against poor design of products and planned obsolescence in all its forms?
- Reuse: how to avoid that exports of second hand products have negative consequences for developing economies? How can we increase local reuse in both developing countries and developed countries?
- What are the effects of reuse and recycling of products on the fight against climate change compared to the production of ‘new’ materials?
- What is the appropriate geographical scale (e.g. city, country, wider regions) for sustainable reuse and recycling of specific streams (e.g. plastics, e-waste)? Which policy interventions are taken to guarantee the proper geographical scaling to close material loops, both on the supply side as well as the demand side.
- Which innovative projects and policy interventions are being developed around waste collection systems, EPR, tracing waste, etc.
- How can we improve municipal waste policies?
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